@article{Świtała-Żelazkow_2022, title={The use of Solver in Excel to solve copolymer composition equation in terminal and penultimate models of copolymerization}, volume={47}, url={http://polimery.ichp.vot.pl/index.php/p/article/view/2018}, abstractNote={The standard Solver in Excel 97 was applied in order to solve the copolymer composition equation in terminal and penultimate models of copolymerization. An unquestionable advantage of this software is easy access standard because Solver is a part of Microsoft Office package. The radical copolymerization of styrene with acrylonitrile in bulk was chosen to prove the usefulness of the calculation procedure of Solver. These monomers system displays a significant penultimate effect. For comparison the classical methods such as curve-fitting, Mayo- Lewis, Fineman-Ross, Kelen-Tidos and Ezrielev-Brokhina-Roskin for the terminal model were also applied. The solutions btained by Solver for penultimate model were compared with hose obtained earlier by non-linear least squares minimizing ethod and Nelder-Mead simplex method. It was found that the recision of Solver is comparable with those obtained by above ethods. The influences of started values, precision and onvergence on the values of minimized function and so on the alues of set of reactivity ratios have been also studied.}, number={10}, journal={Polimery}, author={Świtała-Żelazkow, M.}, year={2022}, month={Sep.}, pages={700-705} }