Polymer nanofibers are currently of great interest in terms of their potential use in various technological processes, e.g. in the manufacture of textiles or membranes. These fibers are characterized by extraordinary properties such as high surface to volume ratio and high porosity. There are several methods of manufacturing nanofibers, but for reasons of simplicity, repeatability and low cost, electrostatic spinning is the most common. The article presents a review of the latest developments in the application of polymer nanofibers in medicine, including such issues as bandage materials, release of active substances and tissue engineering.