Corrections and Retractions


Authors or the Editorial Office can initiate corrections. Correction notices address minor errors in the article, or changes made to the article’s metadata. Corrections are limited to data errors, miscitations or spelling errors. Changes will be outlined in Correction notice with link to the original article.

Major changes, affecting the article as a whole, cannot be made as a correction. It can be considered for retraction and added again after a new review process. There is no option for replacing existing article with new version or publishing and article as a correction.


Retraction notices are issued for significant issues affecting an article that a correction would not fix. Retraction can be initiated by editors, authors, readers or institutions. Articles can be retracted because contain unreliable content, honest or naïve mistakes or research misconduct. An article should be consider to retract on the basis of COPE retraction guidelines:

A retraction notice will be linked to the original article. Retaining the original work ensures transparency as online version have been published and cited before retraction.