The paper is a literature review concerning the preparation and biomedical properties of polyurethanes for pharmaceutical applications. The basic uses of polyurethanes in pharmacy comprise modern drug formulations (including therapeutical systems, carriers and conjugates). Clinical studies indicate that the application of polymer — drug conjugates has a beneficial effect on the therapy efficacy. The introduction of such conjugates into the body results in an increase in drug therapeutic index as an effect of increased drug availability in the affected areas, while at the same time reducing systemic exposure to the drug. Owing to the application of polyurethane conjugates, it is also possible to reduce the side effects and toxicity of drugs. It is expected that the studies on macromolecular drug conjugates (including polyurethanes) will stimulate the development of modern forms of drugs and broadly defined medicinal chemistry.