Composites of rigid polyurethane foams were manufactured using ground peanut, hazelnut, walnut and pistachio shells. The aim of this study was the development of environmentally-friendly materials as well as investigation of the influence of the chemical structure, size and morphology of the filler particles on the processing parameters of the developed foams as well as their structure and physico-mechanical and thermal properties. The used fillers were precisely characterised, the viscosity of the polyol premixes have been examined and the characteristic times of the foaming processes have been investigated. The developed materials were studied using the differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and by determination of their apparent density, friability, water absorption and dimensional stability. The presented research results indicate that the agro-food industry waste could be a valuable source of raw materials for the production of rigid polyurethane foam composites.