Published : 2020-12-15

Physical blowing agents for polyurethanes


Polyurethane foam materials are the majority among all foam materials. Additionally, they
are main part of all produced polyurethanes. Therefore, the problem of selection of suitable blowing
agents is very crucial from the point of view of technological, economic and environmental protection
benefits. The work is collected and discussed all kinds of physical blowing agents which are used in
the production of polyurethane foams. The basic blowing agents used in the polyurethane technology
include: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrogenated fluorocarbons (HFCs), hydrogenated chlorofluorocarbons
(HCFCs), low-boiling saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) and
carbon dioxide. Issues related to the problem of selecting a suitable foaming agent, taking into account
the environmental impacts, foam production costs and the impact on their properties, especially on the
heat-insulation, combustibility, have been widely discussed in the work.





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Wianowski, L., Białkowska, A., Dobrowolski, L., & Zarzyka, I. . (2020). Physical blowing agents for polyurethanes. Polimery, 65(2), 83-94.