This work evaluated the influence of a novel organic nucleating agent, salicyloyl hydrazide derivative (BS), on the crystallization and melting behavior of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA). Differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the incorporation of BS (0.2 to 3 wt %) significantly promoted the crystallization of PLLA on cooling at 1 °C/min. At BS content of 1.5 wt % in PLLA matrix, the highest effectiveness of crystallization process was observed, this result was further demonstrated by X-ray diffraction analysis of non-isothermal crystallization behavior at different cooling rate and measurements after isothermal crystallization. X-ray diffraction studies showed also that the addition of BS did not change the crystalline structure of PLLA. Based on the effect of the predetermined melting temperature on the crystallization behavior of PLLA/BS, the optimum process temperature of 190 °C was found. The comparative study on the melting behavior of PLLA/BS composite under different conditions (cooling rate, melting temperature) also confirmed the ability of BS to promote the nucleation of PLLA crystallization. The crystallization of PLLA/BS composite depends on the concentration of BS additive, crystallization temperature and time as well as heating rate.