The results of the studies of the polylactide surface layer laser induced modification are presented. Various fluence values (Ej) and numbers of laser pulses were applied to modify the surface layer. The method of photoelectron spectroscopy was applied to investigate the chemical composition and the degree of oxidation of the surface layer of the unmodified and modified polylactide. There was found a change in the chemical composition and the degree of oxidation. The alterations depended on the fluence and the number of laser pulses applied.