The fundamentals of the functioning of dosimeters, measuring the ionizing radiation doses, as well as the range of their application to the radiation processing of polymeric materials have been described. The absolute dosimeters such as calorimeters: graphite, aqueous and polystyrene ones and ionization method, as well as relative dosimeters (including ones with liquid- and solid-state systems) have been described. The changes appearing in particular calorimetric materials as well as the methods of these changes measuring were presented. Especially the reactions going on in Fricke dosimeter [equations (5)-(9)] have been characterized in details. Special attention has been paid to the possibilities of polymeric materials using as solid systems in ionizing radiation dosimetry. Solid dosimeters' division to the polymeric, organic and inorganic ones (Table 2) has been considered.